Dunaiefs research has shown that the oral iron chelator deferiprone may be a possible treatment for AMD if iron accumulation was one of the causes for its development. While smoking, poor diet, and lack of exercise typically contribute to oxidation of the retina, research has found that iron may also increase a persons risk of AMD, according. Transferrin-iron saturation percentage (TS) : a measure of iron carried by the protein transferrin in the serum; represented
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by fasting serum iron divided by total iron binding capacity (tibc multiplied by 100. The macula, a small portion of the retina which is responsible for sharp and detailed vision, deteriorates over time when the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) surrounding the macula oxidizes triggering an inflammatory response. People with hhcs typically have normal tibc and TS test results but elevated serum ferritin levels (. Iron chelation therapy is the removal of excess iron from the body with special drugs. Oftentimes the storage protein for iron, ferritin, can reach the eye instead of the mineral itself.
Iron is a necessary mineral for many of the bodys functions, including vision. But too much iron or problems with utilizing, storing, or transporting iron properly can lead to vision loss in the form of conditions such as age-related macular degeneration and hyperferritinemia syndrome, according to recent research findings. Iron accumulates in the body with age because we continue to absorb it from our diets, but we excrete very little, Dunaief said. The answer is that a genetic mutation has turned off the bodys ability to make ferritin in response to changing iron levels. Right now, the only known treatment for hhcs is cataract surgery. Iron may accumulate to even higher levels in diseased retinas because low oxygen levels (hypoxia) or inflammation can cause cells to retain iron. If an hhcs patient is falsely diagnosed with hemochromatosis, phlebotomies used to remove excess iron from the body could make the person become iron deficient. Joshua Dunaief, professor of ophthalmology at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. In hhcs, components of ferritin accumulate in the eye lens and crystalize disrupting the light transmission which enables a person to see. Normally the RPE has ways to prevent iron from entering the retina when iron levels are high, but if iron export from cells is unregulated, iron may accumulate in the eye and degrade the macula.
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